The current situation, existing problems and suggestions of material regeneration in China
renewable resources mainly refer to all kinds of usable waste materials generated in the process of social production and consumption, including metal and non-metal scrap and waste liquid generated in the production and construction of enterprises and institutions, all kinds of equipment and means of transportation for waste reporting, and all kinds of waste products and old things sold or discarded by urban and rural residents, enterprises and institutions
China is relatively deficient in natural resources, and its per capita share of resources ranks only 80th in the world. The situation of resource shortage, serious waste and ecological deterioration makes resource conservation and comprehensive utilization, especially the development and utilization of renewable resources, more and more important and urgent. Through the recycling of renewable resources, a large number of resources discarded after social production and consumption are reused, which not only reduces the exploitation of primary resources, but also saves a lot of energy, and is more conducive to the sustainable utilization of resources. In this regard, the world's developed countries have issued necessary regulations and policies to stimulate the recycling of waste. The Chinese government has always attached great importance to the recycling of renewable resources. National leaders have inscribed successively. Premier Zhou Enlai's inscription is: "we should pay close attention to the link of waste utilization and turn useless into useful"; Li Peng's inscription is: "vigorously develop and utilize renewable resources, turn waste into treasure, and support construction". President Jiang Zemin pointed out at the Symposium on "population, resources and environment": "A large population, relatively insufficient resources and serious environmental pollution have become the factors that affect China's economic and social development. We must have a deep understanding of the importance of dealing with the relationship between economic development and population, resources and environment from a strategic height, take this major event related to the survival and development of the Chinese nation as an urgent task, and persevere." In the white paper of China's Agenda 21 formulated by the state, the "harmless management of solid waste" is listed in Chapter 19, which marks the obvious start of the development and utilization of renewable resources in China. The "Tenth Five Year Plan" for the recycling of renewable resources formulated by the State Economic and Trade Commission has raised the recycling of renewable resources to a new high-level development space, and established the development direction for the renewable resources industry at the beginning of the new century. Therefore, vigorously carrying out the recycling and utilization of renewable resources is one of the important ways to improve the utilization efficiency of resources, protect the environment, and establish a resource-saving economy and society. At the same time, it is also the inevitable requirement of implementing the sustainable development strategy and changing the mode of economic growth
I. The current situation of China's material recycling industry
with the further expansion of reform and opening up and the sustained and rapid development of economic construction, with the support of a series of national preferential policies, the recycling and utilization of renewable resources in China has developed rapidly. At present, there are more than 5000 waste material recycling enterprises, 160000 recycling points, more than 3000 recycling and processing plants, and more than 1.4 million employees across the country; According to incomplete statistics, the recycling volume of renewable resources in China has exceeded 50million tons in 2000, with an annual recycling value of 45billion yuan; The annual processing and processing capacity of the main varieties of waste material recycling enterprises reaches more than 20 million tons, and the recycled varieties have also developed from dozens to hundreds at present; The annual recycling volume of scrapped cars has reached more than 700000; The dismantling capacity of waste ships and mechanical equipment is nearly 10 million light tons. During the Ninth Five Year Plan period, 160 million tons of waste steel, more than 6 million tons of waste non-ferrous metals, more than 10 million tons of waste plastics and more than 40 million tons of waste paper were recycled. At present, more than one-third of the raw materials of steel, non-ferrous metals, pulp and other products in China come from renewable resources, which plays a positive role in alleviating the shortage of resources, maintaining the sustainability of resources, reducing environmental pollution and improving economic benefits. After years of efforts, the recycling network and system of renewable resources have been formed all over the country. With the further improvement of the scientific and technological level of renewable utilization, the renewable resources industry will become one of the main channels of raw material supply in China, and the new modern logistics agency and distribution system of renewable resources will be gradually realized
1. The reform of enterprises has been gradually deepened, and non-public ownership has become the main body of the industry.
with the continuous deepening of enterprise reform, the reform of the management system and operation mechanism of renewable resources enterprises has made great changes, from a single state-owned enterprise to a joint-stock and cooperative enterprise. Some enterprises have seen the withdrawal of all state-owned assets, and joint-stock enterprises that are fully owned by enterprise employees, The fate of the development of the enterprise is closely linked to the fate of its employees. Under the supervision and management of the board of directors and all shareholders, the enterprise has worked hard to improve its internal skills, make great efforts to turn losses and increase efficiency, so that the enterprise can gradually get rid of difficulties, adapt to the development requirements of the market economy, and regain vitality. Through asset restructuring and joint-stock reform, enterprises gradually develop towards integration and collectivization. Standardized operation and new marketing methods have enabled enterprises to continuously expand their business scale and market share, and their strength has been strengthened. A number of backbone enterprises have taken the lead in developing and become leading enterprises in the renewable resources industry. For example, Chongqing Metal Recycling Co., Ltd., Xuzhou material recycling Co., Ltd., Wujin material recycling Co., Ltd., etc., their annual business volume is more than 100 million yuan or even more than a billion yuan. The successful restructuring of enterprises has provided valuable experience for the reform and development of the whole industry. At present, nearly 50% of the enterprises in the whole industry have completed the restructuring work, and the enterprises have begun to operate under the new mechanism
as the non-public economy enters the renewable resources industry, the renewable resources field shows a strong momentum of development. At present, the development scale of individual and private enterprises in the industry is large, accounting for a considerable share in the management and sales of waste steel, non-ferrous metal processing, waste plastics and waste paper. These individual and private enterprises have annual sales of more than 100 million yuan
both non-public ownership and the involvement of individual and private enterprises in the field of renewable resources have fundamentally changed the monopoly of the renewable resources industry from the original material sector and the supply and marketing cooperative system. With China's accession to the WTO and the further opening of the country, foreign economies will also be involved in the field of renewable resources. As long as the enterprise operates legally, pays taxes according to regulations, and complies with the provisions of industry self-discipline, it will promote the whole industry to move forward
2. The recycling and disassembly of enterprises has gradually moved from extensive processing to deep processing and multi fields. After the recycling of renewable resources, the scope of utilization is very wide, and the available materials can be disassembled and processed into products according to the different needs of users, which not only saves raw materials, but also reduces costs, and achieves more with one stroke. Therefore, renewable resources are known as "mines in cities" and "second mineral resources". In recent years, due to the impact of the economic environment, the enterprise efficiency has declined, and the renewable resources industry has been making an issue of deep processing. First, waste plastics are cleaned, crushed and processed into plastic granular raw materials; Waste non-ferrous metals are refined, processed and calendered into raw materials, etc. With the increasing number of waste household appliances, computers and batteries in cities, renewable resources enterprises also march into the field of waste household appliances recycling to solve the impact and harm to the environment caused by the increase of various harmful substances and non degradable substances. Second, the recycled waste materials are selected, and the usable materials such as leftover materials are processed, so that the usable materials can be processed into various small products to the greatest extent, which greatly improves the recycling rate of waste materials; Third, the non reusable waste is disassembled, packed and pressed to supply the production enterprises, which improves the quality of waste steel and other waste into the furnace and is welcomed by users
in order to improve efficiency, some enterprises, while grasping the main business of renewable resource recycling, actively explore new fields related to it, change the previous practice of waiting for each door, and fully reflect the market concept and service awareness. For example, Wenzhou automobile can greatly improve the anti fatigue ability of these metals. The equipment renewal and Recycling Corporation adheres to the policy of "one industry first and diversified operation", takes the consolidation and development of the main industry as the focus, expands the business projects related to the main industry, and constructs an enterprise development strategy centered on comprehensive advantages, forming new car sales, old car trading, scrap car recycling and disassembly, auto parts supply, vehicle decoration and maintenance, and new car licensing for users Comprehensive business service system such as old car ownership transfer and vehicle scrapping procedures. Their market management philosophy, comprehensive service level and the whole process of automobile sales, maintenance and scrap recycling provide users with the pleasure of enjoying the market economy, and also win better economic benefits for enterprises
at present, renewable resources enterprises have changed the business model of "taking in and selling out", basically achieving more disassembly, careful selection Finish processing ", first use, and then return to the furnace. Make the recycling rate reach more than 85%, effectively use renewable resources, and improve the profit rate of renewable resources.
3. Scientific research and development continue to advance, and modern mechanical equipment has increased
there are two control modes d control conditioning mode 2. Mohu control conditioning mode (the first in the industry) With the continuous expansion of the scope of renewable resources utilization and the deepening of the degree of renewable resources utilization, the development projects for the purpose of comprehensive utilization of renewable resources are also becoming increasingly active. The recycling, processing and utilization of renewable resources is no longer a dozen varieties such as waste steel, waste non-ferrous metals, waste plastics, waste glass, etc., but to expand to a broader and high-tech fields, and its utilization value is also climbing to a higher level. Therefore, a number of professional scientific research institutions have been formed to provide technical support for the comprehensive utilization of renewable resources. For example, the national science and Technology Commission approved the establishment of a National Engineering Research Center for solid waste recycling in Kunming, relying on Kunming University of technology; Xuzhou Institute of material recycling, which specializes in precious metal recycling technology; Anhui Changjiang municipal solid waste design and Research Institute, which studies the utilization of biogas produced by municipal solid waste landfill; Research and production of white carbon black, xylitol, activated carbon by using straw and rice husk, and various crop straw, grass and rice (BRAN) husk. After crushing, methanol is extracted from Fusel by using high-tech achievements and prepared into environmental friendly alternative oil fuel. These scientific research achievements have won international and domestic scientific research awards or national patent invention awards. Some technologies have been popularized and applied, and some still need to be popularized and further used. The popularization and application of these scientific research achievements has greatly shortened the gap between China's renewable resources recycling technology and the professional technology in the international recycling field, and provided a new professional technical service channel for China's renewable resources recycling technology
most renewable resource enterprises were established in the s. After more than 40 years of development, the disassembly and processing equipment has been gradually improved. The enterprises are basically equipped with packing and briquetting machines, shears, cutting machines, cranes, cranes, traveling cranes, various trailers and other construction vehicles, and the facilities and environment of the disassembly and processing site have been greatly improved, basically meeting the requirements of environmental protection
with the continuous development of China's renewable resources industry, a number of domestic enterprises specializing in providing technical equipment for renewable resources processing and utilization enterprises have also grown rapidly. Hubei Lidi Machine Tool Co., Ltd., Jiangsu Jiangyin hydraulic machinery factory, Shanghai Pudong Xinchuang machinery factory, etc. are all specializing in the production of metal packers, shears Scrap crushing production lines and scrap material particle processing machines and other renewable resources enterprises used in the machinery of special equipment enterprises. from